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Nuremberg is a city located in the center of Bavaria, on the banks of the Pegnitz River. The first mention of the city dates back to 1050, when it was called Norenberk. In 1167 the construction of the imperial castle began. In 1356, the Golden Bull decided that every German king should spend here the first day of his reign, which immediately made the city one of the largest in Europe. In 1424, Emperor Sigismund decided that the treasures of the imperial crown should be kept in Nuremberg. They were kept here until 1796.
Since 1525, Nuremberg has become a major center of the Reformation. In XVI the city reached a climax: it was a trade center, a crossroads of trade routes between Italy and the North and also a university city. There was a flourishing both economically and culturally. After the Thirty Years’ War, the importance of Nuremberg began to decline. By order of Napoleon in 1806, Nuremberg ceased to be imperial and became simply a Bavarian city, and later the industrial revolution strengthened its role as a city of workers and commerce. When in 1933 Hitler decided to hold a congress of his party in Nuremberg, a gloomy stage of his history began for the city. In January 1945, the city was 90% destroyed by bombing. It took 20 years and a lot of money to Nuremberg regained its former appearance.
On the north side of the Old Town towers the mighty castle of Nuremberg. It is divided into three parts: the castle of counts in the center, the city buildings in the east and in the XII century the built Kaiser castle in the west. From here all kings and Kaisers ruled from 1050-1571. Here all kinds of judicial, palace and state meetings were held.
Slightly descending from the height of the castle to the Old Town you can see the rebuilt house of the famous Nuremberg, Albrecht Durer, in which he lived from 1509 until the last day of his life in 1528.
In the center of the Market Square there is a fountain-well decorated with a Gothic pyramid with 40 figures. Many people come here in order to twist “for luck” a gold-plated ring on the fence of the fountain. The eastern part of the square is occupied by the Church of the Virgin Mary, famous for its altar of the XV century. Not far from the Market Square are the churches of St. Sebald and St. Lawrence with many priceless works of art.
There are many museums in the city: the German National Museum, the Craft Museum, the Transport Museum, the Toy Museum. In the west of the Old City is the building of the Palace of Justice. Here in the hall number 600 there was a trial of Nazi criminals. Behind this building there is a house where they were kept in custody awaiting sentencing.